TIC vs Condo: Two Households Alike… But Different: Kevin+Jonathan Explain the Differences Between TICs and Condominiums

A S  C L E A R  A S  M U D

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Here’s a simple way to remember that will help you remember the difference between a condominium and a tenancy-in-common unit: if a particular space has its own title deed, it should be a condominium (and also exempt from rent control). Lenders the world over will recognize what a condominium is and be able to loan on it. If there’s only one title for the entire building but multiple units (like an apartment building) that’s either an apartment building or a collection of TIC units (all of which would be subject to rent control and eviction control regulations in San Francisco). 

It May Look Like a Condo and Act Like a Condo But It’s No Condo…

Tenancy In Common Units Are An Affordable Way To Get A Property in the City, But It’s A Little More Complicated Than Just Moving Right In

IF YOU’RE SEARCHING FOR A CONDOMINIUM during your search you may come across a seemingly incredible steal of a deal for a renovated space in an older Victorian and Edwardian shell. You’re excited. You think you’ve found it. How could someone overlook this deal? Did you miss something? Then you look closer again and you’ll see these words: “tenancy in common,” or, “TIC.”

  • Tenancy-in-common units TICs for short — are indeed a hybrid between a single-family house and a condominium that are unique to San Francisco. They came into use because of the efforts of a clever attorney, lending representative and realtors as a response to San Francisco’s complex Rent Ordinance among other factors. TICs may look like a condo, feel like a condo and act like a condo but they are legally distinct (although TIC units may become condos, see here for that discussion).

What You’re Really Buying — The Sharing Economy

Instead of getting your own title deed when you complete a TIC unit purchase you end up with an interest in the parcel’s title deed. What amount is determined by contract. When you buy into a TIC building you’re really becoming an ‘owner in common’ with the other folks who own the property with you. Technically, you own an interest in an undivided piece of property. If it weren’t for a contract agreement, you could occupy any part of the property and it would be unclear as to what proportion each owner has compared to the other owners. Therefore, it becomes vital that a comprehensive TIC Agreement will delineate your ownership and occupancy rights over a certain part of the building – “unit 2A,” for example. Unlike the governing documents of a condo building (called the CC&Rs), TIC Agreements are not recorded with the City and do not ‘run with the land,’ as CC&Rs do. TIC agreements not public record but it is important that all owners sign the document and any updates that take place when an owner sells and a new one buys.

Compare and Contrast: Median Sale Prices Between Tenancy-in-Common Unit Sale Prices and Condominium Sale Prices 

 

TIC, 123, ABC...

TIC or Condo?
From left to right: Each single family has its own title deed. Likewise , each condominium has its own title deed and a set of recorded CC&R documents. Last, there is only one title deed for the entire building and the TIC agreement tells you where who lives where and how much each owner owns.

Why Buy A TIC? 

  • An affordable way to enter the real estate market as many TICs are more affordable than their condominium equivalents — this is great for folks who want buy their first home but also know they want to upgrade that home within 5-7 years, which leads us to the following, as owning a TIC may lead to…
  • A potentially great investment opportunity. Depending on the unit a TIC may be able to convert into a condominium unit that has its own title deed and is exempt from the rent control portions of San Francisco’s Rent Ordinance; and lest we forget, TICs straddle…
  • The best of both worlds. TICs are located within older buildings in the more popular parts of the City (Noe Valley, Hayes Valley, Pacific Heights, Telegraph Hill, the Mission and so on) but will often contain units that have had the “This Old House,” treatment that combines modern amenity living with buildings with period details and character. 
  • Therefore, a TIC can be, in some cases, a pre-condo with potential value just waiting to be unlocked.

It All Boils Down to Buying a Title Deed

In the end, what you're really getting is a title deed (for a whole bunch of money).

Or Proceed with Caution? 

Let’s explain what is TIC is by telling you what you don’t get when you buy a TIC unit. When you buy a house or condo, you’re buying a bundle of ownership rights over a piece of real property that is symbolized and communicated to the world by a title deed. That real property, of course, is derived from the sovereign (aka, the people who had the swords who conquered the land and who brought enough order to give/sell/grant land to folks — you know, to the victor goes the spoils).

Those grants were then divided into various divisions starting with townships, sections, fractional sections, rods, down to the parcel which, in San Francisco, is about 25 ft wide x 100 ft deep. For condominiums, the parcels get smaller and smaller with many fitting into the footprint where one house may be. Each parcel will have their own separate legal descriptions and parcel numbers. Each parcel is individually mapped, numbered and on record with the local county assessor, treasurer or recorder’s office and are a matter of public record. Most important, each of those parcels will have its own separate title deed but are subject to restrictions that run with the land in the form of CC&Rs — conditions, covenants and restrictions. See here for more on what you get when you buy a condominium.

  • But for TICs the only document that gives you the right to live in your particular unit is a private contract agreement — the TIC Agreement— that is subject to human fallibility. For example, if one owner doesn’t sign the agreement they, in theory, can live in any part of the building and there’s little anyone can do about it. Really.   
  • Also, enforcing rental restrictions, keeping books and accounting straight can get very murky very fast. 
  • Last, there are only very limited financing options available and the units are still subject to Rent and Eviction Control regulations, which can be really contentious if condo conversion is anywhere on the table. 

How to Finance A TIC Purchase

Two Lenders or Cash.

Buying or selling a house or a condo boils down to transfer ownership of a property’s title deed from one person to another thanks to the exchange of money. Because most people don’t have piles of cash sitting around a buyer will go to the open market to see what type of mortgage loan they can afford to finance the purchase. And pretty much any lender will know what a house or a condo is as each will have its own respective title deed.  Therefore with that common denominator defined, any lender can lend on it, package that loan and sell it as a security on a bond market for example. TICs are unlike single–family home and condo lending where buyers can take advantage of FHA–backed programs and/or draw equity lines of credit in a crowded marketplace. Instead only certain local banks and one national lender will fund a TIC purchase. These lenders will require a larger down payment among other requirements.  Loans tend to be adjustable, which can offer lower rates while a building is waiting to undergo the conversion process.  Some TIC loans will be held collectively by all of the owners as a group, i.e. group loans. Thus, you might be assuming another person’s previous share of the loan when you purchase a TIC interest.

More recently lenders began to offer individual fractional loans in the late 2000s as a market response to make TIC sales more appealing. Fractionalized loans will act to insulate you from another TIC owner’s potential default or late payment; i.e., your credit score wouldn’t be lowered because your neighbor TIC owner forgot to pay their mortgage bill on time. TIC loans have other requirements about partition sales and post-close reserve amount requirements that your lender or lawyer can explain. Importantly, though, TIC owners can claim the mortgage interest deduction as well in most casesl. And property taxes are also typically deductible.

The Financiers

Only two or three banks will lend on TIC purchases these days and one of them you must access using a mortgage broker (National Coop Bank) and the other is intermittent in its lending (Bank of San Francisco). Sterling Bank is the only local, brick and mortar bank that regularly lends on TIC purchases. Here are the folks to talk to who we’ve worked with before:

 

Henry T. Jeanes

Mortgage Consultant / TIC Financing Specialist

Sterling Bank & Trust

Noe Valley Residential Lending Office

3800 24th Street

San Francisco, CA  94114

T: 415.970.9889  x12204

C: 415.990.5620

E: [email protected]

F: 248.351.7232 / 415.970.9880          

NMLS #657755


Mark Skolnick 

Investment Property Capital (Mortgage Broker, access to National Coop Bank TIC loans)

T: 415.893.9321

F: 415.893.9336

E: [email protected]

BRE #01126077 |  NMLS #348746